Analysis of China Container Transport Development Status and Trends

分类:Industry News  发布日期:2016-07-06 01:32:28  浏览次数:11347  [返回]
21st century, with China's accession to WTO, the world economy is becoming increasingly close, with the development of international trade, container transport - a simple convenient, efficient loading and unloading, the rapid development of safe and secure mode of transport. In today's international waterway transport, container transport has become an important mode of transport. Meanwhile, container transport is not only mode of transport, the number of handling container transport is also reflected in the degree of economic prosperity and transport terminals location, as well as international trade and export orders of business prosperity or not.
This paper introduces the concept and application of container transport, on this basis, the paper contact current situation of economic development and international trade of our country at the present stage of development of container transportation status quo, combined with the current world economic crisis, concise set forth in this context development trend of China Container transport.
Global container shipping history from the 1960s has been more than 40 years of development, the past 20 years, more rapid development, global shipping containers has increased from 20 per cent in 1981 to around 65% now. China Container Transport On this occasion the rapid development of China's container transport accounts for a large share of global container transport.
30 years of reform and opening up, China's average economic growth was 9.4%, foreign trade volume in 1998, an average increase of 14.76 percent before, after growth accelerated to more than 23%. Driven by the rapid growth of foreign trade, China's container shipping rate rising to 30% in 1991. 2002 has reached 56.7%. Coastal port container throughput in the 90s of the last century, at a CAGR of 32.61%, nearly five years, is still up 27.8% increase, representing more than half of the world shipping market increment. However, in this year's shipping market, being under the influence of the world economic crisis, the environment, under the direct influence of international trade shrinking, reducing the growth rate of global container transportation, container transportation of severely affected.
Shipping container transport is the main mode of transport in this paper mainly clear current development of container transport, and development trend analysis of China's container transport, thus promoting the development of container transport, container transport rate of increase.
I. Overview of container transport
Concepts (a) container transport
Container shipping is a diverse set of groceries packed in a uniform length, width, high-standard cabinets for transportation.
Container transport first appeared in the United States, the late 1960s extended to the rest of the world, then this new container transport mode of transport was introduced in China. In recent years, China's container transport has also quickly developed, has been in Dalian, law days, Qingdao, Shanghai, Guangzhou Huangpu seaport container terminal was established to improve the handling capacity and the modernization of the harbor.
Range applications (2) container transport
Container shipping can use water transport, may be replaced by rail, road transport, does not have to travel half-way to remove cargo handling efficiency can be improved, is conducive to mechanized operations, eliminate heavy manual labor, reduce the loss of goods, simplifying complex procedures to speed up the travel flow, reduce transport costs. Meanwhile, container transport can be done directly from the shipper to the consignee warehouse warehouse, do not use transit warehouse, the "door to door" transport services.
Second, the current development of container transport
Current development of container transport is the year 2008, the nation's major port container throughput of 126 million TEU, an increase of 12.2%, an increase record 20-year low. Among them, 11 December, container throughput growth rate is slowing down. 2008 1-11 months, China's major inland port container throughput of 8,896,300 TEU, an increase of 20.7%, although the growth rate higher than the coastal port of nearly 8 percent, but lower than the 2007 growth rate dropped significantly. February 2009, China's major port container throughput growth is still in a downward trend.
This shows that China's container transportation has been a great impact on the economic crisis, the reason there is imperfect system of its own, but also the impact of the international environment. Inadequate internal development of container transportation, but also outside of unfavorable development of container transport. , I will this analysis below.
(A) internal factors influence the development of container transportation
Development of container is being affected both freight and transport needs of the internal factors.
2008 US subprime mortgage crisis, the root fuse, lit the first of the 21st century economic crisis, the economic crisis swept under the economic entity has been unprecedented impact on the financial system are damaged, leading to reduction in international trade. As we all know, reduce international trade, resulting in decreased demand for transport between countries, China's shipping system is subjected to an unprecedented extent.
International container transport, will continue to slump. Container shipping is international economic and trade most sensitive sub-sectors, the first boom of the decline occurred, import and export trade enterprises reduced orders, shipping companies have announced capacity cuts to deal with the crisis. We believe that, due to the global economic recession, world trade imbalances pattern is broken, and the other three of RMB appreciation pressure, China negative growth in exports next year could become the norm. Supply and demand side, supply capacity in 2009 of about 6 percentage points greater than the demand. 2009 International container trade will continue to slump.
This shows that China's shipping market demand for our container transport is not high. Directly affect the demand for tariff changes. High demand, shipping companies will increase tariffs; low demand, shipping companies will reduce tariffs. This is determined by the market economy.
We are now in Europe for Hong Kong as an example, CMA shipping company 20-foot container freight in October 2008 to $ 650; November 2008 was $ 625; December 2008 to $ 595; January 2009 was $ 500; February 2009 $ 400; March 2009 was $ 425. Tariffs continue to reduce until March 2009, the reason is to reduce demand. Here reflects the impact of tariff and demand, mutual constraints, reflecting the status of China Container Transport. This set of data in March 2009 had price performance reason, our government's economic policies, trade policies, and governments around the world "bailout" is slowly starting chemical effects. These external factors also affect the China Container Transport.
(Ii) the impact of external factors of development of container transport
Contradiction is the source of power and the development of things. Internal factors are the root cause of the development of things, external factors are necessary conditions for the development of things. Contradiction is the driving force of development of things, while internal and external factors as the existence of internal and external relations, both on the development of things play a role.
If we say that demand is internal tariffs and the development of container transport, then, operating companies engaged in container operation mechanism, our government's external economic policy and foreign trade policy is the development of container transportation.
The economic crisis, for our import and export enterprises and enterprises engaged in container operation is painful blow, as China's market economy is still in the primary stage of socialism, the market economy system is not perfect, irrational industrial structure still arranged, mainly in labor intensive industries, which greatly hindered our orders engaged in Trade of container operation and import and export enterprises and enterprises, the development of container transport is not optimistic.
Prior to the rapid development of China Container Transport Container led to the prosperity of the manufacturing sector. China's container manufacturing industry there are all kinds of special containers Manufacture of other dry cargo containers, refrigerated containers and tank containers and the like. Among them, China's production of standard dry cargo container accounted for more than 95% of world production, container production and sales for more than a decade has maintained the world.
But in 2008, China's annual container manufacturing industry realized a total industrial output value of 46,834,269,000 yuan, an increase of 5% over the same period in 2007; realized a total sales revenue of 45,309,124,000 yuan, compared with same period in 2007 decreased by 3%; total profit accumulated 1,673,195,000 yuan, compared with same period in 2007 decreased 58.50%.
In this reality, our government's economic and trade policies is particularly important, the government in macro-control, the introduction of appropriate active policies, contribute to the growth of international trade, thereby stimulating the growth of China Container Transport.
To this end, Premier Wen Jiabao made the "Government Work Report 2009" that we should strive to maintain steady growth in foreign trade. We emphasize the expansion of domestic demand, not exports relax. Faced with a sharp decline in external demand, international trade protectionism grim situation, to increase its support for import and export, cleaning and adjust our foreign trade policies, improved terms of trade. To adhere to the export market diversification, and quality to win, enhance traditional export markets, and energetically open up new markets.
Since the policy has been introduced, how to use aggressive policy to stimulate our economy, to promote international trade, promote China's container transportation, container transportation planning and development trend of China, the optimization of container transport management, operation mechanism is that we now proceed to solve the problem.
Third, the development trend of China's container transportation
External through internal work, the internal factors. Under certain conditions, can be transformed into external internal, and internal changes occur gradually, qualitative change, this condition is unchanged for a long or very strong or sustained strengthening of far more than the internal capacity, forcing it to change, adapt to the phase-out failure. Therefore, internal affordability becomes a factor external works.
(A) affect the development trend of China's internal container transport
China's container transport market tariffs reflect lower market demand downturn. Tariffs and demand is not static, between the two are complementary and can be changed. At the same time, but also between the two mutually stimulation. One change, then the other side will make the appropriate adjustments, rather than adapt.
As the impact of the development trend of internal container transport, freight and bear the brunt of demand manifested. Yet in the long term to reduce tariffs to stimulate market demand situation, each shipping company in April 2009 have been rising tariffs to stimulate market demand.
We are now in Europe for Hong Kong as an example, in April 2009 freight shipping company CMA 20-foot container is $ 675, growth of 58.8%. April 2009 freight shipping company MSC 20-foot container is $ 550, growth of 46.6%.
Tianjin, an international freight company's import and export container transportation in January 2009 shipments 40TUE, 2009 Nian 2 Yuefen import and export container transport shipments 47TUE, 2009 the month of March in the import and export various shipping companies will soon clear up tariffs Container transport shipments 70TUE. The reason for the rise in short-term freight import and export enterprises each hearing tariffs in April 2009 is about to rise in concentrate shipments. But the means to achieve rising tariffs to stimulate market demand and not suitable for long-term use, or soaring freight Pujiang not conducive to long-term development of China's container transport in the short term.
This same company in 2009 1, 2, and shipments in March 2008 1, 2, shipments rose in March to -19.4% - 25.1% - 9.7%. On the one hand, a strong short-term fluctuations in the demand for freight have a great impact, with a strong short-term adjustment of tariffs to achieve the means to regulate the market demand is not conducive to the healthy development of China's container transport market. On the other hand, with the Chinese government put the appropriate policies to stimulate the import and export there are certain factors.
Combined with market demand of container transport, contact interests of all parties to develop a long-term stable and healthy reasonable tariff floating mechanism, so appropriate to the needs and tariffs, it is the development trend of China Container Transport.
(Ii) the impact of the development trend of container transport external
Market demand determine tariffs continue to decline in tariffs in response to market demand of China's container shipping downturn. On this occasion, the Chinese government issued a series of policies to stimulate the economy, to the China Container Transport and the shipping industry to bring warmth.
Since the end of 2008, the Chinese government issued a series of economic stimulus. Release 4 trillion yuan to stimulate the economy, planning for the revitalization of industry, science and technology innovation, consolidate the social security system, as of now, the central government in December 2008 to invest 100 billion yuan of funds from the project to have been fully in place. Chinese New Year before the second batch of 130 billion yuan of investment funds from the project to have been fully in place. Repeatedly to lower interest rates, while large tax cuts, in order to stimulate investment, to support enterprises. Beginning January 1, 2009, the implementation of the VAT to reduce the burden on enterprises 120 billion yuan.
The recent development of the Ministry of FireWire ten industrial revitalization plan, in which the steel industry restructuring and revitalization plan, the automotive industry, textile industry, equipment manufacturing industry has been introduced, followed by the State Council executive meeting examined and approved in principle the shipbuilding industry restructuring and revitalization plan. Ten non-ferrous metals industry, petrochemicals, light industry revitalization plan the rest will continue to be submitted by the State Council executive meeting in the near future.
Once these irritating measures show results, no doubt will lead to a new round of demand for raw materials, iron ore stocks will further digestion; after the iron ore negotiations, the domestic steel prices will begin a new round of iron ore imports; 4 trillion plan will stimulate the gradual implementation after the Spring Festival, thus boosting demand for imports of iron ore, which will give the shipping market gust of warm air.
We should seize this warm profit economic policy adjustment of import and export business of industrial type. By the resource-intensive and labor-intensive, capital-intensive and technology-intensive steering. Market demand downturn reason is that our international competitiveness is not high, import and export products for the production of raw materials and low value-added, low-skilled, low-value primary products. We want to upgrade the industrial structure, leading industry by the low level of technology, low value-added, low output state to high-tech, high value-added, high-value state evolution trend. This is the development trend of China's international trade is the development trend of China's container transport carrying goods, is also developing trend of China Container Transport.
At the same time, China's container transport should seize the opportunity to adjust the industrial structure, the development of transport of bulk items special items and frozen goods.
In 1998, Maersk Container Industry Qingdao in Qingdao bought refrigerated containers Jindo Korean Investment Company, which is the only manufacturer of refrigerated containers Danish headquarters in overseas investment. The total investment amounted to $ 37 million, the annual production capacity of 12,000 units, all supply outlet, after the company put into operation quickly gained a huge return. Begun to taste the "sweetness" Maersk quickly launched a further investment in the pace of expansion, more recently, acquired in Dongguan factory producing dry cargo container, the plant was put into operation in mid-2006, and received a huge performance returns.
In recent years, the action frequently in the sea port and shipping industry chain group, also in March 2008 in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province to start building the first container manufacturing projects, annual production capacity of 150,000 TEUs of containers production line. August 4, 2008, in the sea to invest $ 49.95 million in the Nansha Development Zone of container manufacturing project was formally signed, the project planned production capacity 150,000 TEUs. In addition, the group also shares a sea container manufacturing base Jinzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone, the annual output of 100,000 TEUs.
This shows that the direction of the cold box, open top containers, as well as to frame all of our development, we should not be limited to general cargo transport goods, but should focus on all suitable for waterway transport of goods. Stronger, bigger, to do the whole, with the order of import and export goods of the applicable corporate match, which is the development trend of China Container Transport.